• 2016.7.28

    Inferring Jomon population change using frequencies of radiocarbon dates

    Enrico R. Crema (University of Cambridge, Marco Madella (Universitat Pompeu Fabra)

    • 写Figure 1. Summed probability of calibrated radiocarbon dates showing possible population dynamics between 7000 and 3000 years ago in Aomori prefecture.

      Figure 1. Summed probability of calibrated radiocarbon dates showing possible population dynamics between 7000 and 3000 years ago in Aomori prefecture.

    • The reconstruction of prehistoric population dynamics has always sparked strong interest amongst anthropologist and archaeologist across the globe. This is because demographic processes have been long advocated as a cause and/or consequences of a variety of phenomena, ranging from the appearance of modern human behaviour during the Upper Palaeolithic to the origins of agriculture and the emergence of social stratification. While many of these explanations have been debated over the years, demographic change remains one of the best example where the cumulative consequences of micro-scale individual decision makings and ecological interactions can be observed at the macro scale. Understanding this complex relationship revealed that a population decline does not necessarily imply the occurrence of catastrophic ecological events nor a rise indicate an episode of successful adaptation. Indeed, the shrinking population and aging of contemporary Japan shows how demographic change can indeed be the consequences of social, economic, and cultural phenomena.

      Inferring population change from the archaeological record is however not simple. The direct counting of human remains is not possible, as the number of specimens is too small. Hence archaeologists around the world have been counting the changing number of sites and houses to have a proxy of population change. This provides a good starting point, but most sites and houses are dated through the recovery of diagnostic artefacts that provide a relative measure of time. This means that we can tell whether a house is older or newer than another one, but we cannot pinpoint exactly when the house was used.

      Recently, many archaeologists have overcome this problem by using the frequencies of radiocarbon dates to infer population change. The premise of this solution is that, all things being equal, higher population densities will lead to a higher number of artefacts, and the presence of more artefacts will increase the number of dated samples. Thus by looking at the changing frequencies of a large number of dated artefacts (and applying statistical analyses to distinguish isolate patterns from spurious one derived by taphonomic loss, sampling error, and 14C calibration process) we are able to track human population change in absolute, rather than relative, time allowing us to compare reconstructed population dynamics to paleo-environmental data.

      As part of the Small Scale Economy and the NiCoSS projects, we have analysed the radiocarbon dates from Aomori prefecture to reconstruct the population trajectory of the Early to Late Jomon periods (see Crema et al 2016). Our analysis (figure 1) suggests that 6000 years ago Jomon communities of this region experienced a steady population growth for about 500 years. Chronometric analysis of the pollen record of several key sites (e.g. Sannai-Maruyama) suggests that during the same interval there was an expansion of chestnut forests near human communities. The pollen record suggests that these forests were not natural, but the result of human intervention and management. Our analysis indicates however that after 5500 years ago, Jomon population experienced numerous fluctuations, suggesting that rates of population growth exhibited in the previous centuries was not sustainable. Did Jomon population reached its carrying capacity? Or did episodes of small climatic changes and subsistence shifts impede a continuous growth? Further multidisciplinary studies will be required to answer these intriguing questions.

      Crema ER, Habu J, Kobayashi K, Madella M (2016) Summed Probability Distribution of 14C Dates Suggests Regional Divergences in the Population Dynamics of the Jomon Period in Eastern Japan. PLoS ONE 11(4): e0154809. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154809

  • 2016.8.25

    過去の文化と伝統知をつなぐ —アイヌ民族博物館でのワークショップより
    Connect the Past Culture and Traditional Knowledge.

    -菅野 智則(東北大学埋蔵文化財調査室)
    Tomonori Kanno (Archaeological Research Office on the Campus, Tohoku University)

    • 写真1:現地で針葉樹の枝を採取する、エド・キャリア氏(左)。<br>Photo1 : Mr. Ed Carriere (left) cutting the softwood branch.

      Photo1 : Mr. Ed Carriere (left) cutting the softwood branch.

    As a sub-project of the Small-Scale Economies Project, Rika Shinkai, Naoto Yamamoto and I have been working on a study of the material culture on the Northwest Coast of North America. In collaboration with Prof. Dale Croes of Washington State University, we are particularly interested in understanding the connections between ethnographic examples and archaeological specimens excavated from wetsites, as well as in conducting comparative studies between the Northwest Coast and Japan. In the context of this collaborative work, in May 2016, Prof. Croes and Mr. Ed Carriere, a Master Basketmaker of the Suquamish Tribe, visited Japan, demonstrated how to make traditional baskets, and interacted with Ainu people in Hokkaido, craft specialists in northern Japan and scholars in various fields.


    In conjunction with their visit, a workshop was held at the Ainu Museum in Shiraoi, Hokkaido. Three lectures were given at the beginning of this workshop, which were followed by Mr. Carriere’s basket-making demonstration. Firstly, Prof. Junko Habu, our project leader, introduced the overview of the Small-Scale Economies Project, with a focus on the importance of understanding traditional ecological knowledge. Secondly, Dr. Daisuke Naito, a RIHN researcher and a project member, gave a brief overview about indigenous peoples’ rights and the Forest Certification System. Following these presentations, Prof. Croes and Mr. Carriere showed us the results of their comparative studies between excavated materials from wetland sites and traditional techniques that are still used today. A statistical analysis of the morphological characteristics of archaeological artifacts and ethnographic basket-making techniques suggests that the origins of Mr. Carriere’s knowledge about traditional techniques may go back several thousand years.

    Following these three lectures, Prof. Croes and Mr. Carriere, in a hands-on workshop, demonstrated how to prepare raw materials for basket-making and braid cords. Among the participants, those with previous weaving experiences with traditional basket weaving were very quick to understand. They were learning by looking at the demonstration rather than relying on verbal explanations. It appears that weaving for practical use in both the Northwest Coast and Hokkaido are quite similar, even though, geographically speaking, these two traditions originated far away from each other. In conclusion, this workshop provided us with a great opportunity to infer common characteristics of traditional ecological knowledge over time and space.

    5月11日に、北海道白老町アイヌ民族博物館において、「ネイティブアメリカンのバスケット-伝統をつなぐ-」(主催:アイヌ民族博物館、共催:総合地球環境学研究所)と題するワークショップが開催された。これは、デール・クロース(Dale Croes:ワシントン州立大学)とエド・キャリア(Ed Carriere:アメリカSuquamish族のバスケット製作の匠)の両氏の来日に伴い企画されたものである。これまでに小規模経済プロジェクトでは、デール氏と北米北西海岸の低湿地遺跡の発掘において共同研究を進めてきた(真貝ほか2015)。今回の両氏の来日は、その共同研究の一環である。

     デール氏は、ライフワークとする北米北西海岸部における遺跡の発掘調査を通じ、様々な時代の物質文化に関する考古学的研究を進めてきた(Croes and Carriere 1980など)。デール氏の調査では、低湿地遺跡や貝塚等の有機質の遺物が残りやすい遺跡に関する調査がとくに多く、その出土品の中には多種多様な木製品やバスケット等の遺物が多量に確認されている(その調査の一例を紹介した事例としては菅野ほか2008など)。エドは、彼の曾祖母から教えられたバスケット作りを含む伝統的な技術文化の継承と普及を進めてきた。そして、デール氏らが発掘した出土遺物に関する共同研究も行い、過去の技術の復元を行っている(Croes and Carriere 2016)。



    • 写真2:デール氏、エド氏に夜発表

      Photo 2 : Presentation by Prof. Croes and Mr. Carriere.

    • 写真3:エド氏による実演

      Photo 3 : Mr.Carriere demonstrates making braids.

    •  デールとエド両氏は「北米北西海岸セイリッシュ海域におけるバスケット製品の復興」と題した講演を行った(写真3)。デール氏は、人類学と考古学の研究方法について、実験考古学、民族考古学という従来の方法のほかに、「世代をつなぐ考古学(Generationally-Linked Archaeology)」と命名した方法を提起した。この方法は、現代の伝統的な工芸家の技術的系譜を辿ることにより、現代における伝統的技術と考古資料との関連性を探るものである。この方法は、広く捉えて民族考古学・実験考古学の両者の特徴を併せ持ったものと理解した。





      ・ 菅野智則・山本直人・宮尾 亨・岩崎厚志・松井 章 2008 「アメリカオレゴン州サンケン・ビレッジ遺跡」『考古学研究』54-4 pp.120-123
      ・ 真貝理香・菅野智則・山本直人・羽生淳子・松井 章・Duncan McLaren・Dale R. Croes 2015 「カナダ・トリケット島における先史時代遺跡の調査」『考古学研究』62-2 pp.16-20
      ・Dale Croes and Eric Blinman. 1980. Hoko River: a 2500 Year Old Fishing Camp on the Northwest Coast of North America. Report of Investigations, No.58. Laboratory of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman.
      ・Dale Croes and Ed Carriere. 2016. Re-Awakening a 2,000 Year Old Salish Sea Basketry Tradition: Master Salish Basketmaker and Wet Site Archaeologist Explore 100 Generations of Cultural Knowledge. Program of The 81st Annual Meeting, SAA. p.67

  • 2015.10.29

    カナダ・トリケット島における 先史時代遺跡調査に伴う民族事例

    -真貝 理香(総合地球環境学研究所 研究員)

    • 潮干狩り

    総合地球環境学研究所では「地域に根ざした小規模経済活動と長期的持続可能性」(プロジェクト・リーダー:羽生淳子)が2014年度から2016年度までの3年間の予定で実施されている。そのプロジェクトの一環として、松井章先生(奈良文化財研究所)が、かねてより共同研究を行っていたDale Croes氏(Pacific Northwest Archaeological Services/Washington State University客員研究員)と北米での遺跡調査への参加を企画し、2015年5月3日から17日にかけて、山本直人(名古屋大学)・菅野智則(東北大学)・真貝理香の3名が、カナダ・トリケット島(Triquet Island)における先史時代の遺跡(EkTb9)調査に参加した。

    この調査は、Hakai Instituteの援助(註1)を受けたDuncan McLaren氏(University of Victoria)によるチームによるもので(McLaren, ed. 2013)、発掘調査の概要については別稿(菅野他2015)にて、投稿中である。この遺跡は約8000-5000Cal. BP.に比定される貝層や泥炭層を含む湿地遺跡であり、木製品、石器、大量の貝類・魚類、若干の海棲ほ乳類などが出土した。

    今回の調査において極めて興味深かったのは、現在は無人島となっているトリケット島が、自然環境が極めて良好な状態で保たれていたため、我々は森の中でテント生活をし、発掘調査のみならず、遺跡周辺で実験考古学さながらの体験ができたこと、また、調査には同島をテリトリーとするヘイルツク(Heiltsuk)族の若夫婦Joshua Vickers、Andrea Walkusさんが参加していたことで、彼らから伝統文化の一端を聞く事ができたことである。遺跡調査を目的としたフィールド・ワークではあったが、遺跡をとりまく自然環境や民族事例からも学ぶことが極めて多かったため、ここにそれらを記載して報告したい。なお、カナダでは先住民族はファースト・ネイションと呼ばれている。


  • 2015.8.12


    -安達香織(総合地球環境学研究所 研究員)

    長期変化班は、縄文時代における環境と人との関係を長期持続可能性という観点から多角的に分析し検討している。具体的には、東日本の遺跡から出土した動植物遺体の分析や、石器のデンプン分析、古人骨の安定同位体分析、遺跡分布データベース作成・分析などによる縄時代の人の生業活動復元をおこなう一方で、陸奥湾から採取した堆積物試料中のアルケノン分析や花粉分析などによる古環境復元をすすめている。  現在、私は大木さおり氏と共同で、東北地方北部のいくつかの遺跡から出土した縄文時代中後期土器の種実・昆虫圧痕分析をすすめている。そのうち3つの縄文時代遺跡の立地と環境の現状を把握するために、2015年8月2日~4日青森県に出張した。

  • 1)外ヶ浜町(そとがはままち) 中の平(なかのたいら)遺跡
  • 過年度の発掘調査地点の確認と現地聞き取り調査、周辺地形の確認踏査をおこなった。現在、一帯が畑地として利用されており、1972、73年の部分調査で縄文時代前~後期の遺物が出土した遺跡の保存状態は良好といえた。

    • 写真1:中の平遺跡の現状


    • 写真2:津軽半島北部の海岸に面した段丘上に位置する中の平遺跡


    • 2)むつ市 最花(さいばな)遺跡
    • 過年度の発掘調査地点の確認と現地聞き取り調査、周辺地形の確認踏査をおこなった。畑地部分と耕作の放棄された荒地部分とがあった。B地点付近で縄紋時代後期初頭の土器が農作業中に掘り起こされていた。これまで数回の部分調査で縄文時代前期~後期の遺物・住居・貝塚が検出された遺跡の保存状態はいまだ良好といえた。

    • 写真3:陸奥湾から内陸に5㎞に位置する最花遺跡B地点付近の現状


    • 写真4:B地点付近で農作業中に掘り起こされていた縄紋時代後期初頭の土器


    1. 3)東通(ひがしどおり)村 尻労安部(しつかりあべ)洞窟遺跡
    2. 尻労安部洞窟は、下北丘陵北半部の中心の標高400メートルの桑畑山東側の太平洋に面した急傾斜地に位置する。この洞窟において10年以上にわたり継続して夏期に発掘調査が行われている。(http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/minna/nozoite/2015/bouken_no8.html)調査団に合流し、旧石器・縄文時代の石器や動物・魚貝類遺体、人骨などの検出を目指した掘削・水洗ふるい作業を見学した。


  • 2016.7.28

    Wukchumni Yokuts Spring Ceremony - Guardian of the small-scale society's tradition

    -細谷 葵(お茶の水女子大学)
    Aoi Hosoya/ Ochanomizu University

    • 写真1:スウェットロッジに入れる石を焚き火で焼いているところ


    • 写真2:祭がとりおこなわれる場所へ向かう


    • 写真3:セージ。清めのために用いられる


    • 写真4:水不足で枯れかけているオーク



       2016年3月25日から3日間、羽生淳子氏・真貝理香氏・Alisha Eastep氏とともに、カリフォルニア州・レモーアのクエーカー・オークス・ファームにて行われたワクチャムニ・ヨクーツ族の春祭りに参加した。筆者は昨年11月の秋祭りにも参加し、祭り参加は2回目。顔なじみになったワクチャムニ・ヨクーツ族の方々やレギュラー参加者の皆さんと会えて、すでに里帰りのような懐かしい気持ちに浸る。








    写真:真貝理香 Photo: Rika Shinkai

  • 2016.4.14

    California Native Americans' Ongoing Efforts to Revive their Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Carry it on the Next Generation

    -小林 優子(地球研)
    Yuko Kobayashi/ RIHN


      On 31st January 2016, Prof. Habu, Ms. Shinkai and I attended “Acorn Processing Workshop” coordinated by Wukchumni Yokuts representatives in Visalia, California. Their tireless efforts to bring back the disappearing traditional knowledge and customs are inspiring not only to their people, but to anyone who wishes to learn from the past and find a way to cope with the current socio-economic and environmental problems around the world.




    伝統知は、先住民族としてのアイデンティティや価値観の復興や構築に不可欠なものであり、それを次世代に継承していく教育活動は、現代の環境・社会問題の取組みにおいても、重要なコンポーネントである。ヨクーツ族の方々も、昔は、ドングリを日常的に食していたが、現在では、実食経験のある若い世代は稀となってきている。本ワークショップは、ヨクーツ族のDarlene Franco氏とLalo Franco氏をコーディネーターとし、ドングリ食加工の経験に富むウェスタン・モノ族のJulie Tex氏、Carly Tex氏、Mandy Marine氏を講師として招聘した。


    この地域に自生するドングリは数種類あるが、今回利用したのは、ブラックオーク(Black oak)で、油分が多いためにアクがぬけにくいという特徴を持つ。ドングリの加工は、①どんぐりの殻を割って取り除き、②渋皮を剥き、③粉状に磨石などですり潰し、バスケットでふるい、④水に3時間程度さらし続けアクを抜き、⑤水と混ぜたドングリの粉に焼いた石を入れ調理するという過程から成っており、時間と労力のかかる作業である(写真3)。一方で、作業をしながら周りの人々と話に花を咲かせ、昔の人々も、このようにコミュニケーションをとっていたのだろうと思いを馳せた。

    • 写真2:伝統的に使われてきた加工用の磨石、石皿。コーディネーターであるラーロ・フランコ氏が博物館よりこの日のために借り受けたもので、「博物館の展示物としてではなく、我々が使い続けていかなくてはならない」と語った。

      Photo 1 : Traditional tools, stone motar and pestle. Lalo borrowed them from a museum for the workshop. “They should not be exhibited in a museum, but have to be used by us,” said Lalo.

    • 写真3:ドングリと伝統的なバスケット

      Photo 2 : Acorns and Traditional baskets

    • 写真3:羽生リーダー、真貝研究員によるプレゼンテーションの様子

      Photo3: Presentation by Junko Habu and Rika Shinkai.

    • 写真4:写真3:ドングリ加工の作業風景

      Photo 4 : Presentation by Junko Habu and Rika Shinkai.





      謝辞:本ワークショップ開催に尽力頂いたDarlene Franco氏、Lalo Franco氏、Julie Tex氏、Carly Tex氏、Mandy Marine氏、会場提供および運営支援頂いたLovetts家の皆様に感謝いたします。

    • 写真4:講師、コーディネーターの方々と


  • 2016.4.14

    - 岩手県宮古市(旧川井村)、山あいの暮らし -
    Feast around a Wood Stove -Lifeways in Mountain Valley in Iwate Prefecture

    -真貝 理香(地球研)
    Rika Shinkai/ RIHN


    Photo 1 : Eiko-san reheats the homemade tofu on the wood stove.


      A trip to snowy Kitakami Mountain Valley in winter time might not sound so exciting to many. However, our field trips in January and February 2016 gave me an opportunity to learn a lot about traditional and sustainable lifeways of people in small villages in Iwate Prefecture, northern Japan. The Kawai Area of Miyako City [former Kawai Village] is located one-hour bus ride away from downtowm Miyako. This area is known for cultivating millets and buckwheat, not rice, due to the limited plain fields and cool weather in summer. Yet, the harsh climate during the long winter has encouraged the local residents to develop a wide variety of subsistence strategies.


    Our Small-scale Economies Project focuses on the past and present practice of place-based, smaller-scale food production systems, evaluates their advantages and limitations, and explores their future potentials. Since last summer, our project members have conducted interviews with some elders in this area in order to learn about their history and traditional ecological knowledge. From 16 to 18 February, 2016, Junko Habu, Aoi Hosoya and I went for a field research trip and interviewed local residents, Tomiji and Aki Sasaki (92 and 89 years respectively), local farmers, and Eiko Kagura who is certified as “a Food Mater in Iwate.”

    “Rice was so valuable in the past, thus only eaten on special days such as Bon (a festival to honor the spirits of ancestors) and the New Year’s holidays,” said Tomiji-san. Local residents used to perform slash and burn agriculture. After burning the field, buckwheat was planted, and it was ready for harvest within 75 days. This was followed by soybeans. Soybeans, which are often processed into miso and tofu, still remain indispensable for their daily subsistence. Particularly in winter time, tofu are frozen and dried to make shimi dohu for a long-term storage. Tomiji-san and Aki-san also grow a variety of vegetables in small quantities for self-consumption, one of which is daikon radish. It is one of the common vegetables in Japan for long-term storage. Harvested in winter, it is pickled, dried and stored. At the time of food scarcity, daikon was mixed with grains or rice to increase the quantity.

    Furthermore, abundant food resources from the forests and mountains have supplemented their subsistence: edible wild plants, chestnuts, walnuts, acorns and mushrooms. Nuts have been important preserved food items for the local people. In the old days, acorns were eaten after leaching. Chestnuts are commonly dried and stored even today. As we were saying goodbye to Tomiij-san and Aki-san, we passed by some chestnuts hung and dried under eaves of their house. Such glimpses of their traditional customs were ingrained as a part of their daily life provide us with an invaluable insight about the link between food diversity, traditional ecological knowledge and people’s identity.

    The subsistence economy in this area is said to be self-sufficient based on agriculture, producing a large variety of food in small quantitites. In the past, however, Tomiji-san and Aki-san also raised cattle, which required them to prepare hay in the summer time, as well as silkworms for cash conversion. Charcoal production was another common profession in the area due to the rich natural resources.

    Tomiji-san proudly stated that his father was one of the best charcoal makers. In addition, they also raised a sheep to get wool in the past to knit their own clothes. Collecting firewood to heat bath and wood stove still continues today. The entire family juggled so many tasks throughout a year to establish their self-sufficient lifestyle.

    Winter is extremely severe in this area. It was particularly freezing cold in February when we visited there. During the interviews, we huddled around a wood stove to keep ourselves warm. Aki-san served us homemade hot soymilk, simmered vegetables and daikon radish pickles, saying “there is nothing much here, but the wood stove is our feast.” I could not agree more.

    Another person that we interviewed was Eiko-san from a neighboring village called Suzukura. Iwate Prefectural Government has certified her as a “Food Mater in Iwate.” This title is given to those who conserve and promote traditional knowledge and skills and disseminate Iwate’s food culture to consumers, which will contribute eventually to local revitalization. Once we arrived at her house, she readily demonstrated her skills by serving us grilled tofu, rice balls with green beans, pickled red turnip and some daifuku mochi (rice cake with red bean jam). In her old storehouse, a number of barrels for miso and pickles, as well as rice, were stored. “For rice, beans, or any other kinds of food, processing is the most important thing. Once we acquire the skills of processing, we can survive anywhere,” stated Eiko-san.

    Eiko-san is not only a certified food master, but also a successful community organizer. She established a food-processing facility, which was co-funded by her neighbors. Soybean products and other traditional foods such as kiri-sensho (sweet and soy-sauce-flavored walnut mochi) and mame-suttogi (rice flour sweets with green soybeans) are produced at the facility with other ladies, and they are sold at the farmers’ market along the highway. Her story showcases a successful example in which a social network of women vitalizes a local community.

    All three of us of this field team are archaeologists. In the discipline of archaeology, a study of food production and subsistence strategies is a first step to investigate how people managed to survive over the long period of human history. Thus, what we saw and heard during this research trip should have been familiar concepts and ideas to us. However, our interviews with these individuals, whose life styles are inextricably linked to first-hand food production to get through the harsh winter, gave us a renewed opportunity to revisit the questions of the importance of historical depth and the intrinsic value of humankind. The place-based lifeways of Tomiji-san, Aki-san and Eiko-san demonstrate how sustainable food systems can be attributed to the three key concepts of our project - diversity, network and local autonomy - and provide us with a foundation to seek for alternative strategies of food production for the future generation.






    • 写真2:車窓から見た山あいの村

      Photo 2 : Scenery from a car window.

    • 写真3:佐々木冨治さん・アキさんご夫妻。後列:羽生リーダー・菅野智則(東北大)

      Photo 3 : Sitting in front of the wood stove . (Front: Tomiji-san and Aki-san. Back: Junko Habu and Takanori Kanno, Tohoku University.)





    • 写真4:干し栗(佐々木さん宅)

      Photo 4 : Air dried chestnuts (At Tomiji-san residence)

    • 写真5:豆腐のステーキ。キツネ色の焦げ目とラー油醤油が美味

      Photo 5 : Grilled tofu with chili oil and soy sauce. Nicely browned!

    • 写真4:干しジャガイモ。いったん凍らせてから乾燥させる

      Photo 4 : Dried frozen potatoes.  

    • 写真5:蔵の前で(左から:真貝・神楽さん・羽生リーダー)

      Photo 5 : In front of the storehouse (Rika, Eiko-san, Junko)







    • 写真8:蔵の中。味噌・漬物用の木樽が並ぶ

      Photo 8 : Many wooden barrels for miso and pickles in the storehouse of Eiko-san.

    • 写真9:青大豆

      Photo 9 : Dried green soy beans.



  • 2016.1.5

    Abalone Collecting in Small Fishing Communities after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    -池谷 和信(国立民族学博物館)
    Kazunobu IKEYA/ National Museum of Ethnology

    Abalone called ezo-awabi is distributed along the Sanriku coast in northeastern Japan. Fishing cooperative regulations determine the season and the time when the collection period starts (opens called kuchiake). Abalone are collected between November and December. The communities have always relied on fishing as one of their core economic activities—from ancient times up to the present day. However, with the onslaught of the tsunami during the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 2011, many homes and fishing vessels were washed away, ripping the foundations for people’s livelihoods away. Today, three years and nine months after the disaster, we take a look at how the region’s abalone collecting has recovered.

    • 写真1:三陸海岸のエゾアワビ


    • 写真2:アワビの採取風景







  • 2016.1.5

    A Look at California Organic Farms

    -Tomiko Yamaguchi(International Christian University)

    • Supermarket

    To develop a vision of a society that is ecologically sound and socially just – one of the objectives of the Contemporary Society Group of the Long-Term Sustainability through Place-Based, Small-scale Economies project – it is essential that we look at the systems that produce our food. There are many important questions to ask about how agrifood systems are constituted and contested, by whom, using whose knowledge, and to what consequence. In my fieldwork in Japan, I focus on socio-technical conflicts about food safety surrounding radioactive nuclides in food and farmland, and the question of whose knowledge prevails in dealing with food safety crises. In my project in California, I am looking at how the expansion of organic food production and markets is interpreted and experienced by organic farmers who support the values of ecological and social integrity, and how they respond to the competition that is part of the growing market. This short article describes insights from an early phase of fieldwork in the Central Coast area of California.

    read all (PDF 1.7MB)

  • 2015.6.30


    -砂野 唯(総合地球環境学研究所 研究員)


    • 写真1:かやぶき家屋を利用した「美山かやぶき美術館」


    • 写真2:食料不足のときの食料、トチノキ(知井地区)


    • 写真3:野草を使った特産品づくり(美し山の草木舎)




  • 2015.10.20

    Towards sustainable remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils

    -Sarick Matzen(Pallud Lab, Environmental Science, Policy, and Management Department, UC Berkeley)

    Our overarching goal is to develop alternative approaches for more rapid and effective phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated soils with the Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata). Our specific objectives are to (i) evaluate the fern’s performance under real-life conditions, and investigate the effects of soil texture on phytoremediation efficiency, (ii) evaluate the fern’s performance in both arsenic-only and multiple-contaminant soils, (iii) explore novel strategies to increase the efficiency of phytoremediation, and (iv) determine the suitability of phytoextraction for remediating arsenic-contaminated agricultural soils.

    • photo1:Sample collection in the field experiment

    • photo3:The brake fern, Pteris vittata, planted in our field experiment.

    Data we collected after 2 years of in situ phytoremediation showed that under field conditions, compost-amendments best promote arsenic removal, while phosphate-based amendments interfere with arsenic removal. We find that nitrogen amendments increase phytoremediation efficiency over time, possibly due to increasing root biomass. We have begun infrastructure development at a second field site, where we will determine the effects of metal co-contaminants on arsenic uptake in the brake fern.

    Controlled greenhouse pot experiment results confirmed the effects of fertilizer treatment observed under field conditions. We also are investigating the interacting effects of soil texture and fertilization on arsenic uptake in the brake fern. We have concluded experiments with coarse-textured soil, and have begun experiments with fine-textured soil. We expect that arsenic uptake in the brake fern will be lower in clayey soil than in sandy soil. Additionally, we are beginning to explore the role mycorrhizal fungi play in arsenic uptake in the brake fern. Our preliminary results suggest that our fern roots are colonized by indigenous mycorrhizal fungi in our field site soil. Finally, we have begun work investigating arsenic transfer into the food chain, an important part of our overall work in support of food production in soils with a history of arsenic contamination. We have conducted a pot study to determine the effects of compost amendment on arsenic uptake in common vegetable crops, and are beginning work to characterize the bioaccessibility of arsenic in our sandy and clayey soils. We have also recently begun soil column experiments to determine leachability of arsenic from our soils. Our future work will involve gathering 2 more years of data for each of our study sites. We will investigate the cycling of arsenic, phosphate, and lead at the meso-scale, based on prototype soil column studies currently in progress. Finally, we will continue to characterize human bioaccessibility and plant availability of arsenic in our field site soils. Importantly, we will provide these results to our community partners and the City of Berkeley, along with our arsenic phytoremediation results, to inform future food production on our field site lot, as well as to inform arsenic remediation efforts broadly.

  • 2015.10.12


    -飯塚 宣子(同志社大学)


    トラツィニ・キャンプとは毎夏、彼らが子どもたちと生業や伝統文化を集中的に共有する約2週間のキャンプである。広大なテリトリーの中、毎年キャンプ場は変わる。クマやヤマネコが生息するため、犬は必携である。薪を割り、火を絶やさず、保存食をつくる。クリンギット語の歌を学び、物語を聞く。同時に、外部から調理された料理が届けられ、iPhone から流れる音楽はエルダーを驚かす。



    自分たち以降の次世代に小規模経済を継承する意志を語る。 彼らを支援する米国の環境NGOの科学者は「土着の人々の世界観は、人間性(humanity)が生き残る鍵」と語る。「土地に根ざすインフォーマルな経済」(小規模経済)と「貨幣経済」の性格を明確に区別する思考、「生き方(Khustiyash)」という言葉が表象するもの、BC州とTRクリンギットが締結した「土地利用計画」などを手がかりに、彼らの自然環境への思考法、社会・経済・文化・宗教性の全体性の中の感覚を定位する調査研究、またそれらを日本での環境教育に活かす実践研究を相互にすすめていきたい。

  • 2015.10.5


    -高橋 五月 (George Maison University)



    • 沖合設置を小名浜港で待つ、浮体式風力発電実証事業2基目「ふくしま新風」