• 2016.7.28

    Inferring Jomon population change using frequencies of radiocarbon dates

    Enrico R. Crema (University of Cambridge, Marco Madella (Universitat Pompeu Fabra)

    • 写Figure 1. Summed probability of calibrated radiocarbon dates showing possible population dynamics between 7000 and 3000 years ago in Aomori prefecture.

      Figure 1. Summed probability of calibrated radiocarbon dates showing possible population dynamics between 7000 and 3000 years ago in Aomori prefecture.

    • The reconstruction of prehistoric population dynamics has always sparked strong interest amongst anthropologist and archaeologist across the globe. This is because demographic processes have been long advocated as a cause and/or consequences of a variety of phenomena, ranging from the appearance of modern human behaviour during the Upper Palaeolithic to the origins of agriculture and the emergence of social stratification. While many of these explanations have been debated over the years, demographic change remains one of the best example where the cumulative consequences of micro-scale individual decision makings and ecological interactions can be observed at the macro scale. Understanding this complex relationship revealed that a population decline does not necessarily imply the occurrence of catastrophic ecological events nor a rise indicate an episode of successful adaptation. Indeed, the shrinking population and aging of contemporary Japan shows how demographic change can indeed be the consequences of social, economic, and cultural phenomena.

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  • 2016.8.25

    過去の文化と伝統知をつなぐ —アイヌ民族博物館でのワークショップより
    Connect the Past Culture and Traditional Knowledge.

    -菅野 智則(東北大学埋蔵文化財調査室)
    Tomonori Kanno (Archaeological Research Office on the Campus, Tohoku University)

    • 写真1:現地で針葉樹の枝を採取する、エド・キャリア氏(左)。<br>Photo1 : Mr. Ed Carriere (left) cutting the softwood branch.

      Photo1 : Mr. Ed Carriere (left) cutting the softwood branch.

    As a sub-project of the Small-Scale Economies Project, Rika Shinkai, Naoto Yamamoto and I have been working on a study of the material culture on the Northwest Coast of North America. In collaboration with Prof. Dale Croes of Washington State University, we are particularly interested in understanding the connections between ethnographic examples and archaeological specimens excavated from wetsites, as well as in conducting comparative studies between the Northwest Coast and Japan. In the context of this collaborative work, in May 2016, Prof. Croes and Mr. Ed Carriere, a Master Basketmaker of the Suquamish Tribe, visited Japan, demonstrated how to make traditional baskets, and interacted with Ainu people in Hokkaido, craft specialists in northern Japan and scholars in various fields.

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  • 2015.10.29

    カナダ・トリケット島における 先史時代遺跡調査に伴う民族事例

    -真貝 理香(総合地球環境学研究所 研究員)

    • 潮干狩り

    総合地球環境学研究所では「地域に根ざした小規模経済活動と長期的持続可能性」(プロジェクト・リーダー:羽生淳子)が2014年度から2016年度までの3年間の予定で実施されている。そのプロジェクトの一環として、松井章先生(奈良文化財研究所)が、かねてより共同研究を行っていたDale Croes氏(Pacific Northwest Archaeological Services/Washington State University客員研究員)と北米での遺跡調査への参加を企画し、2015年5月3日から17日にかけて、山本直人(名古屋大学)・菅野智則(東北大学)・真貝理香の3名が、カナダ・トリケット島(Triquet Island)における先史時代の遺跡(EkTb9)調査に参加した。

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  • 2015.8.12


    -安達香織(総合地球環境学研究所 研究員)

    長期変化班は、縄文時代における環境と人との関係を長期持続可能性という観点から多角的に分析し検討している。具体的には、東日本の遺跡から出土した動植物遺体の分析や、石器のデンプン分析、古人骨の安定同位体分析、遺跡分布データベース作成・分析などによる縄時代の人の生業活動復元をおこなう一方で、陸奥湾から採取した堆積物試料中のアルケノン分析や花粉分析などによる古環境復元をすすめている。  現在、私は大木さおり氏と共同で、東北地方北部のいくつかの遺跡から出土した縄文時代中後期土器の種実・昆虫圧痕分析をすすめている。そのうち3つの縄文時代遺跡の立地と環境の現状を把握するために、2015年8月2日~4日青森県に出張した。

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  • 2016.7.28

    Wukchumni Yokuts Spring Ceremony - Guardian of the small-scale society's tradition

    -細谷 葵(お茶の水女子大学)
    Aoi Hosoya/ Ochanomizu University

    • 写真1:スウェットロッジに入れる石を焚き火で焼いているところ


    • 写真2:祭がとりおこなわれる場所へ向かう


    • 写真3:セージ。清めのために用いられる


    • 写真4:水不足で枯れかけているオーク



       2016年3月25日から3日間、羽生淳子氏・真貝理香氏・Alisha Eastep氏とともに、カリフォルニア州・レモーアのクエーカー・オークス・ファームにて行われたワクチャムニ・ヨクーツ族の春祭りに参加した。筆者は昨年11月の秋祭りにも参加し、祭り参加は2回目。顔なじみになったワクチャムニ・ヨクーツ族の方々やレギュラー参加者の皆さんと会えて、すでに里帰りのような懐かしい気持ちに浸る。

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  • 2016.4.14

    California Native Americans' Ongoing Efforts to Revive their Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Carry it on the Next Generation

    -小林 優子(地球研)
    Yuko Kobayashi/ RIHN


      On 31st January 2016, Prof. Habu, Ms. Shinkai and I attended “Acorn Processing Workshop” coordinated by Wukchumni Yokuts representatives in Visalia, California. Their tireless efforts to bring back the disappearing traditional knowledge and customs are inspiring not only to their people, but to anyone who wishes to learn from the past and find a way to cope with the current socio-economic and environmental problems around the world.



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  • 2016.4.14

    - 岩手県宮古市(旧川井村)、山あいの暮らし -
    Feast around a Wood Stove -Lifeways in Mountain Valley in Iwate Prefecture

    -真貝 理香(地球研)
    Rika Shinkai/ RIHN


    Photo 1 : Eiko-san reheats the homemade tofu on the wood stove.


      A trip to snowy Kitakami Mountain Valley in winter time might not sound so exciting to many. However, our field trips in January and February 2016 gave me an opportunity to learn a lot about traditional and sustainable lifeways of people in small villages in Iwate Prefecture, northern Japan. The Kawai Area of Miyako City [former Kawai Village] is located one-hour bus ride away from downtowm Miyako. This area is known for cultivating millets and buckwheat, not rice, due to the limited plain fields and cool weather in summer. Yet, the harsh climate during the long winter has encouraged the local residents to develop a wide variety of subsistence strategies.

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  • 2016.1.5

    Abalone Collecting in Small Fishing Communities after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    -池谷 和信(国立民族学博物館)
    Kazunobu IKEYA/ National Museum of Ethnology

    Abalone called ezo-awabi is distributed along the Sanriku coast in northeastern Japan. Fishing cooperative regulations determine the season and the time when the collection period starts (opens called kuchiake). Abalone are collected between November and December. The communities have always relied on fishing as one of their core economic activities—from ancient times up to the present day. However, with the onslaught of the tsunami during the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 2011, many homes and fishing vessels were washed away, ripping the foundations for people’s livelihoods away. Today, three years and nine months after the disaster, we take a look at how the region’s abalone collecting has recovered.

    • 写真1:三陸海岸のエゾアワビ


    • 写真2:アワビの採取風景




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  • 2016.1.5

    A Look at California Organic Farms

    -Tomiko Yamaguchi(International Christian University)

    • Supermarket

    To develop a vision of a society that is ecologically sound and socially just – one of the objectives of the Contemporary Society Group of the Long-Term Sustainability through Place-Based, Small-scale Economies project – it is essential that we look at the systems that produce our food. There are many important questions to ask about how agrifood systems are constituted and contested, by whom, using whose knowledge, and to what consequence. In my fieldwork in Japan, I focus on socio-technical conflicts about food safety surrounding radioactive nuclides in food and farmland, and the question of whose knowledge prevails in dealing with food safety crises. In my project in California, I am looking at how the expansion of organic food production and markets is interpreted and experienced by organic farmers who support the values of ecological and social integrity, and how they respond to the competition that is part of the growing market. This short article describes insights from an early phase of fieldwork in the Central Coast area of California.

    read all (PDF 1.7MB)

  • 2015.6.30


    -砂野 唯(総合地球環境学研究所 研究員)


    • 写真1:かやぶき家屋を利用した「美山かやぶき美術館」


    • 写真2:食料不足のときの食料、トチノキ(知井地区)


    • 写真3:野草を使った特産品づくり(美し山の草木舎)


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  • 2015.10.20

    Towards sustainable remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils

    -Sarick Matzen(Pallud Lab, Environmental Science, Policy, and Management Department, UC Berkeley)

    Our overarching goal is to develop alternative approaches for more rapid and effective phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated soils with the Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata). Our specific objectives are to (i) evaluate the fern’s performance under real-life conditions, and investigate the effects of soil texture on phytoremediation efficiency, (ii) evaluate the fern’s performance in both arsenic-only and multiple-contaminant soils, (iii) explore novel strategies to increase the efficiency of phytoremediation, and (iv) determine the suitability of phytoextraction for remediating arsenic-contaminated agricultural soils.

    • photo1:Sample collection in the field experiment

    • photo3:The brake fern, Pteris vittata, planted in our field experiment.

    Data we collected after 2 years of in situ phytoremediation showed that under field conditions, compost-amendments best promote arsenic removal, while phosphate-based amendments interfere with arsenic removal. We find that nitrogen amendments increase phytoremediation efficiency over time, possibly due to increasing root biomass. We have begun infrastructure development at a second field site, where we will determine the effects of metal co-contaminants on arsenic uptake in the brake fern.

    Controlled greenhouse pot experiment results confirmed the effects of fertilizer treatment observed under field conditions. We also are investigating the interacting effects of soil texture and fertilization on arsenic uptake in the brake fern. We have concluded experiments with coarse-textured soil, and have begun experiments with fine-textured soil. We expect that arsenic uptake in the brake fern will be lower in clayey soil than in sandy soil. Additionally, we are beginning to explore the role mycorrhizal fungi play in arsenic uptake in the brake fern. Our preliminary results suggest that our fern roots are colonized by indigenous mycorrhizal fungi in our field site soil. Finally, we have begun work investigating arsenic transfer into the food chain, an important part of our overall work in support of food production in soils with a history of arsenic contamination. We have conducted a pot study to determine the effects of compost amendment on arsenic uptake in common vegetable crops, and are beginning work to characterize the bioaccessibility of arsenic in our sandy and clayey soils. We have also recently begun soil column experiments to determine leachability of arsenic from our soils. Our future work will involve gathering 2 more years of data for each of our study sites. We will investigate the cycling of arsenic, phosphate, and lead at the meso-scale, based on prototype soil column studies currently in progress. Finally, we will continue to characterize human bioaccessibility and plant availability of arsenic in our field site soils. Importantly, we will provide these results to our community partners and the City of Berkeley, along with our arsenic phytoremediation results, to inform future food production on our field site lot, as well as to inform arsenic remediation efforts broadly.

  • 2015.10.12


    -飯塚 宣子(同志社大学)


    トラツィニ・キャンプとは毎夏、彼らが子どもたちと生業や伝統文化を集中的に共有する約2週間のキャンプである。広大なテリトリーの中、毎年キャンプ場は変わる。クマやヤマネコが生息するため、犬は必携である。薪を割り、火を絶やさず、保存食をつくる。クリンギット語の歌を学び、物語を聞く。同時に、外部から調理された料理が届けられ、iPhone から流れる音楽はエルダーを驚かす。

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  • 2015.10.5


    -高橋 五月 (George Maison University)



    • 沖合設置を小名浜港で待つ、浮体式風力発電実証事業2基目「ふくしま新風」