| Infectious Diseases
| Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria,
viruses, parasites or fungi; the diseases can be spread, directly or indirectly,
from one person to another. Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases of
animals that can cause disease when transmitted to humans. (WHO)
KHVD（Koi Herpes Virus Disease）
The viral disease that infects to carp and koi, caused by Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (also know as koi herpesvirus: KHV)
The acute virus sexually transmitted disease which happens by cloven-hoofed
animals (cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat pig).
The parasite disease which makes Oncomelania alternate host, passes in
"man and cattle" and does leather infection.
This sickness is distributed over the Near and Middle East and Africa,
and the conch (Bulinus The genus) is made alternate host.
This sickness is distributed over Africa South America and the Caribbean Sea area, and the conch (Biomphalaria The genus) is made alternate host.
Infection by an aerosol is increasing recently.
The bacteria infection which makes the legionella pneumophila a representative.
Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
Gram-positive coccals present in a surface of the body face in the skin
a man and an animal and the enteron.
It's harmless, but usual is the cause of the various serious illness infections
of "Suppuration infectin, impetig and Scedosporium apiospermum"
It's also called green monkey haemorrhagic fever by one of viral haemorrhagic
|Mycobacterial infectious disease
The viral haemorrhagic fever which is seen and makes the mast mistake (one
kind of field mice) natural host in the West Africa stretch.
| Emerging/Re-emerging Infectious Diseases
| An emerging infectious disease (EID) is an infectious disease whose incidence
has increased in the past 20 years and threatens to increase in the near
|SARS（Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome）
The whole body infection which raises viremia.
|highly pathogenic avian influenza : HPAI
High virus sexually transmitted disease of the fatality spread by feces,
Oral infection and Nasal infection between the bird.
|West Nile fever
Chicken and mosquito are infected each other each other.
A mosquito makes man infect. Fever and an encephalitis happen by this.
|Ebola hemorrhagic fever
This sickness is infected from blood and body fluid.
This is viral haemorrhagic fever.
It's a parasite disease.
The condition has loose bowels.
This sickness breaks out massively through water and a food.
|Crimean‐Congo hemorrhagic fever
The viral haemorrhagic fever wide and distributed from the African Continent
to East Europe, the Near and Middle East, Central Asia and Western China.
|Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome（AIDS)
The immunodeficient position by the persistence infection virus.
|Nipah virus infection
A source of infection is a pig.
When I infect man, an acute encephalitis is caused.
|Japanese spotted fever
Ixodid carries Rickettsia japonica, and I infect man.
The conditions are a headache and fever.
|Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
They're bacteria with tolerance in the antibiotic （Vancomycin） used for
treatment of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
Treatment of MRSA is disturbed by these bacteria.
This sickness is also called green monkey haemorrhagic fever by one of
viral haemorrhagic fever.
The viral haemorrhagic fever which is looked by this sickness in
the West Africa stretch and makes the mast mistake
(one kind of field mice) natural host.
| History of infection, and correspondence of human
|◆Prehistoric age / hunter-gatherer
・About 10 million years ago, activity of the great rift valley which traverses
an African continent north and south activated. The equatorial west wind
which was carrying moistness air from the Atlantic Ocean was interrupted
by having formed the upheaval belt in the circumference. As a result, the
east side of the great rift valley became savanna.The initial human beings
who lived in woods till then advanced to savanna, and the opportunity of
contact with a large-sized wild animal increased at a stretch. The feces
of an animal and exposure to the water polluted by it increased the infection
opportunity to the parasite of wild animal origin especially. Initial human
beings of those days are small-scale population groups, and are leading
the hunting collection life, and the acute infection cannot usually maintain
fashion in such a small-scale group. However, infection, such as Hansen's
disease from which a pathogenic organ can survive within a host over a
long period of time even if it is in such environment, malaria which has
a host in addition to humans, and schistosomiasis, was maintaining fashion.
It is thought that initial human beings also held such infection. Moreover,
it seems that African disease Toripanosona which has zoonosis was also
in fashion. （Yamamoto 2010: 19-22）
・To others, Carbon disease and infantile Botulism are raised as zoonosis
other than parasite infestation of those days. Both of the infection has
a close relation with flesh-of-animals foods. （Yamamoto 2010: 26-27）
・As a feature of this time, there is movement other than population having
been small-scale. the re-infection from feces etc. becomes empty as for
move society rather than settlement society -- there is nothing. By settlement,
it can be said that the contact opportunity to its feces increased. The
contact with feces increases the infection and infection with parasites
of an alimentary system, and settlement society becomes the soil which
makes infection prevalent from move society easily as a generality.（Yamamoto
・If the above infection is removed, initial human beings will become empty
as for the lifestyle-related disease by exposure and lack of exercise to
a chemical substance -- there is nothing. And it is thought that the comparatively
good and healthy life was led. （Yamamoto 2010: 27-28）
・Summary：Initial human beings are moving to savanna from woods, and the
contact opportunity with a large-sized wild animal increased at a stretch.
The main infection routes of a there are exposure to the water polluted
by feces and feces of the animal, and, thereby, the parasite infestation
of wild animal origin was prevalent. In addition, carbon disease and infantile
botulism are raised as zoonosis other than parasite infestation. Flesh-of-animals
foods can be considered as the infection route. If the above infection
is removed, initial human beings will be considered that the lifestyle-related
disease by exposure and lack of exercise to a chemical substance was leading
the life that there is nothing, comparatively good, and healthy which becomes
empty. （Yamamoto 2010: 19-28）
◆Settled agrarian society
・It is around 11,000 years before that human beings started farming. The
start of farming resulted in a dramatic change to the method of social
existence. Farming is realizing increase of the crop yields per unit area,
and increased the population bearing power of land. Moreover, the new lifestyle
of settlement was produced. Thereby, the delivery interval was shortened
and it contributed to the increase in population. （Yamamoto 2010: 28-30）
・On the other hand, it is the domestication of a wild animal which was
mostly produced with establishment of farming and settlement in the Mesopotamia
district at the period. Livestock changed how to have society in some respects.
In the first place, the droppings of livestock became high quality manure.
The cultivation feasible region was made to expand to the second. It functioned
on the third as surplus food. （Yamamoto 2010: 30）
・Overhunting decreases a natural resource and the reason from which domestication
of farming and a wild animal began has the opinion that the hunting collection
life became difficult, and the opinion that the habitation region of the
land and wild animal which were suitable for farming by the rise of earth
temperature carried out angle expansion. （Yamamoto 2010: 32-34）
・Settlement made parasite infection, such as ankylostomiasis and ascariasis,
increase via feces. Moreover, storage food became suitable food, such as
a rat, and lyme disease-tularemia-coxiella burnetii-trombiculiasis-pest
etc. generated it via the flea and ticks adhering to a rat. （Yamamoto 2010:
・Domestication of a wild animal is another side and generated viral infection.
As for a cow and the measles, water bird and the whooping cough of a dog
and influenza are pig or the dog origin. Conversely, there is cow type
tubercle bacillus as a pathogenic organ infected with livestock from humans.（Yamamoto
・It can be considered that health and illness are the measures of adaptation
to human biological / sociocultural environment. When based on this idea,
illness shows the state where humans have not adapted themselves to the
surrounding environment. If environment changes, temporary being un-adapted
will arise. Maladjustive width will also become large if an environmental
change is large. And maladjustive width will also become large if an environmental
change speed is quick. In the meaning, the prehistory human beings who
were maintaining comparatively good health condition over the long period
of time will rack their brains for adaptation to a big change, as a result
of starting farming and settlement. And the grapple may also be able to
do the view that it continues still now. （Yamamoto 2010: 37-38）
・Summary：It is at the time 11,000 years ago that human beings started farming.
Farming is realizing increase of the crop yields per unit area, and increased
the population bearing power of land. Moreover, the new lifestyle of settlement
was produced and it contributed to the further increase in population by
shortening a delivery interval. It is the domestication of a wild animal
which was mostly produced with establishment of farming and settlement
in the Mesopotamia district at the period. Livestock resulted in a big
change to human society, when the excrement served as high quality manure
in the first place. By making the cultivation feasible region of livestock
second expand, it resulted in a big change to human society. And it resulted
in a big change to human society because livestock functions third as surplus
food. There are an opinion that overhunting decreased the natural resource
and the hunting collection life became difficult as a reason from which
domestication of farming and a wild animal began, and an opinion that the
habitation region of the land and wild animal which were suitable for farming
by the rise of earth temperature was expanded. Settlement made parasite
infection, such as ankylostomiasis and ascariasis, increase via feces.
Moreover,storage food became suitable food, such as a rat and and lyme.
disease-tularemia-coxiella burnetii-trombiculiasis-pest etc.generated it
via the flea and ticks adhering to a rat. On the other hand, domestication
of a wild animal generated viral infection, such as smallpox, the measles,
influenza, and whooping cough.
◆Ancient civilization age
・Summary：If their eyes are turned to the relation between Mesopotamian
civilization, the China civilization and Indus civilization, and infection,
the following basic structures can be pointed out. In the first place,
civilization offered the soil of the fashion to the measles, smallpox,
and whooping cough in connection with the increase in population, and such
infection saw fixing into human society. The infection cherished second
in civilization bore the function which protects civilization. This is
a type of Mesopotamian civilization. And the civilized society without
the immunity of acute infection received large-scale damage by contacting
infection. Surrounding infection was taken in with expansion of civilization
and the repertory of the illness was increased third. This is a type of
the China civilization and Indus civilization. And the infection which
civilization took in became a powerful tool of civilization extension while
becoming a biological barrier which protects civilization from circumference
society after that. Existence of the illness affected fourth social formation.
There are many researchers who presuppose that he cannot understand the
society or religion of India without taking existence of various infection
into consideration. （Yamamoto 2010: 53-54）
◆The plague seen from the history of civilization
・Summary：One of the infection which had serious influence over the long
period of time in the history of man has the plague. It was shown clearly
that a possibility of the plague of having the origin in China with the
paper which investigated gene sequences was high. And it is concluded that
the plague was expanded to areas including the Eurasian Continent through
the Silk Road and Great Navigation. The plague is winding Constantinople,
the capital of the Byzantine Empire, and returning and attacking it from
542 years to 750 years, and lent the hand to a decline of the country.
Moreover, by Sui, it is thought through great fashion in the 7th century
that the hand was lent to a decline of the country. However, the plague
disappeared from the subterranean Kaichi region at least until it attacked
Europe again from around 750 in the 11th century. Since the period has
fallen on the warm term, there are some researchers who raise a climate
change as the reason, but there are also many objections. As a factor in
which the plague raged again from the 11th century to the 14th century,
it is raised that population increased rapidly in China and Europe and
that large-scale development of the transportation network was seen. Although
the plague wound West Europe and returned and attacked it also after that,
finally an explosive fashion here ceased fashion in Marseilles from 1920
to 22 years. Although acquisition, the climate change, quarantine, etc.
of the resistance of maintenance and the host of city environment are cited
as the reason, a true cause is still a mystery. Moreover, also after that
in East Europe, Asia, and Africa, fashion continued. （Yamamoto 2010:55-75）
◆The modern world system and infection
・Summary：The international-division-of-labor organization which is said
to have been materialized from the end of the 15th century to the 16th
century promoted a global expansion of infection while increasing the contact
opportunity of Europe and a U.S. continent. Malaria and yellow fever are
among the main infection had and crowded with slave trade on the U.S. continent
from Europe. On the other hand, malaria and African disease Toripanosona
became the hindrance although the advance into the African continent in
Europe advanced at the period. In this way, for the European who advanced
to Africa or Asia, imperial medical treatment and colony medicine became
subjects with main maintenance of nationals' health in a tropical area,
then were born. Imperial medical treatment was used for justification of
the colonial policy, and colony medicine contributed to development of
modern medicine greatly.（Yamamoto 2010: 80-112）
◆Establishment of International quarantine system and extermination strategy
・Plague fashion in Hong Kong, and establishment of international prevention-of-epidemics
organization: In 1894, fashion of the plague occurred in Hong Kong. It
is regarded as the beginning that the government troops dispatched to rebellion
repression of the army which happened in Yunnan in 1855 were infected with
the plague here, and spread in the China whole country with the return.
Great fashion in Hong Kong which is also an international harbor city brought
European and American society the shock, and international prevention-of-epidemics
organization was systematized. The purposes are protection of the living
European in Hong Kong, and prevention of the plague invasion to the West.
International preventive measures took effect, and as a result of isolation
quarantine functioning effectively, the plague invasion to the West was
prevented. However, in Hong Kong, plague fashion continued being a social
problem over 30 years after that.
・Large-scale prevalence of a Spanish flu: The Spanish flu which applied
and was prevalent in 1918 to 19 brought about the damage said by 50 million
people and all 100 million people in the world whole country. But Africa
and India received serious damage. As a factor which brought about fashion,
there were the introduction of the traffic system to an African continent
and movement of the army and workers accompanying World War I in colonial
days. On the other hand, 20 million people thing people were killed in
India. The malnutrition by famine attacked it.
・Summary：Great fashion of the plague which occurred in Hong Kong in 1894
brought European and American society the shock, and international prevention-of-epidemics
organization was systematized. The purpose is protection of the living
European in Hong Kong, and prevention of the plague invasion to the West.
Although international preventive measures (isolation quarantine) took
effect and the plague invasion to the West was prevented, in Hong Kong,
plague fashion continued being a social problem over 30 years after that.
Moreover, the Spanish flu (new strain of influenza) which applied and was
prevalent in 1918 to 19 brought about the damage said by 50 million people
and all 100 million people in the world whole country. But Africa and India
received serious damage and there were the introduction of the traffic
system to an African continent and movement of the army and workers accompanying
World War I in colonial days as the factor. On the other hand, although
20 million people thing people were killed in India, the malnutrition by
famine attacked it. Thus, in spite of having experienced the big tragedy,
man came to hold big fantasy from the middle of the 20th century to the
second half to infection. The effect of the penicillin developed in the
first half of the 20th century or a polio vaccine serves as the backdrop.
The extermination plan of smallpox was started also as that led by WHO
under such a flow in 1958. As technical backing which made the plan possible,
there was development of 2 and a hypodermic needle, and a freeze-drying
vaccine. In 1979, WHO declared that smallpox was exterminated from the
ground through the surveillance period of 2 from the last smallpox patient's
onset of a disease.
| Example of linkage
|◆Development original disease
・Construction of Aswan High Dam, and expansion of schistosomiasis: Although
bilharziasis was prevalent from ancient times in the Nile River downstream
region, it expanded even to the Nile River upper stream region through
the population lake (Lake Nasser) made by construction of Aswan High Dam.
The infection rate of the valley residents who were 5% to 20% before dam
completion went up from 55% to 85% behind dam completion Gosannen. As same
case, the Volta dam construction (Ghana), development of Three Gorges Dam
(China), and expansion of schistosomiasis are pointed out. （Yamamoto 2010: 146-147）
・In West Africa, there is indication suppose that onchocerciasis carried
by blackfly was in fashion of indication by dam construction.（Yamamoto 2010: 148-149）
・Others：Prevalence of the rice cultivation (irrigation development) in
the Caribbean Sea coast and malaria and prevalence of the rubber plantation
development in the Malay Peninsula and malaria are pointed out. However,
if these examples differ in the area, a result may change. Although irrigation
development and rubber plantation development cause malaria fashion in
an area with many mosquitoes which like a sunny place, fashion does not
necessarily arise in an area with many mosquitoes which like the shade.
Although other health impairment may arise also in this case, of course,
about the long-term influence relation between a deforestation and health
impairment by development, it does not understand yet. （Yamamoto 2010: 151）
・There was the following indication. For example, malaria occurred, while
humans developed the forest or worked on natural environment through agriculture.
(Iijima 2009: 146) Prevalence of the Schistosoma japonicum disease is the
land use for a rice crop. There was a close relation to how (environmental
change by human work) to exist. Prevalence of the Schistosoma japonicum
disease spread by paddy field development (Iijima 2009: 169).
・Summary：Although the measure against the illness has been long considered
to be a countervalue accompanying development, I hear that the measure
against the illness is a cost-effective development project, and that the
case of the development original disease clarified has it. For example,
it is thought that the 1993 editions "world development report"
of the World Bank which was able to smell "investment in health"
to the theme converted such a viewpoint. Moreover, if development is accompanied
by environmental change, it is inescapable that epidemiological balance
collapses. As a result, social disease structure changes. This is applied
also to development of the name of the measure against the illness, or
precautions against infectious disease. For example, the example which
brought about prevalence of forest type malaria also has the indoor residual
spraying of an insecticide. furthermore, the healthy loss which advances
over a long period of time likes what is not understood until a problem
actualizes -- there is not nothing. For example, at present, nobody understands
the ecosystem in which the success contains a host with a pathogen living
thing also about a smallpox eradication program, and the influence brought
to human beings' health in the long run. （Yamamoto 2010: 152-153）