Soil contamination is one of the serious environmental issues that our planet is currently dealing with. Plant-based remediation has been drawing attention as its new countermeasure. One of our sub-projects titled Towards sustainable remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils,” which is led by Prof. Celine Pallud at University of California, Berkeley, focuses on the study of plant-based remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils using the brake fern (Pteris vittata L.). Mr. Sarick Matzen, the project member, visited RIHN on July 1st and gave a talk on the progress and challenges of the research.
Prof. Habu's article titled "Mechanisms of long-term culture change and human impacts on the environment : A perspective from historical ecology, with special reference to the Early and Middle Jomon periods of prehistoric Japan" was published on the Quaternary Research, the journal of Japan Association for Quaternary Research.
RIHN and I – Through the eyes of a Project Leader (3)
--- In this section, past and current RIHN project leaders tell stories about their research and dreams for the future based on a photograph that they have chosen.
Jomon period archaeology is my field of research. Archaeology is the study of inferring the lifeways of people of the past from the analysis of material culture or archaeological remains excavated from archaeological sites in order to examine the process of cultural and social change. Simply gazing upon the remains, however, does not lead to an understanding of those who were using them. For example, Jomon archaeologists know that an arrowhead from the Jomon period is heart-shaped, but those who have never seen this type of arrowhead would not be able to tell what it is just by looking at it.
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Date / Hours: Wednesday, August 31, 2016, 13:00 - 17:00
Venue: Seminar Room 3 and 4, RIHN (Access)
Organizer: Small-scale Economies Project & Nakahara IS
Language: English with consecutive translation
Contact: Takehara Small-scale Economies Project (Room 8)
13:00 - 13:30
Introduction: Nuclear Disasters and Small-Scale Communities
Prof. Junko Habu / RIHN & University of California, Berkeley
13:30 - 14:30
Making New Home and Denying Inherited Home:
The Rongelap People Reconstruct Their Life with Food
Prof. Satoe Nakahara / Chukyo University
14:30 - 14:45 Break
14:45 - 15:45
Environment, Health, and Human Rights:
Current Challenges and Adaptive Responses in the Marshall Islands
Prof. Barbara Rose Johnston/Center for Political Ecology & Michigan State University
15:45 - 16:00 Break
16:00 - 17:00 Discussion
In May 2016, Dr. Miguel Altieri and Clara Nicolls of the University of California, visited RIHN. Our project took this excellent opportunity to host a series of events dedicated to agroecology. Together with project members, discussions were held on the challenges of and opportunities to scale-up agroecological practices in Japan for the purpose of achieving a more sustainable, resilient and self-sufficient food system. These discussions also shed new light on the intersection between traditional ecological knowledge and scientific knowledge. We are happy to present this “Kyoto 2016 Agroecology Declaration,” which reflects the results of these discussions.
Date：1st July 2016 (Friday) 15:00～16:30 (45mins talk and Q＆A)
Venue：Seminar Room 3, 4
Speaker：Sarick Matzen (University of California, Berkeley)
Language :English with consecutive translation
Abstract: Soils globally are contaminated with arsenic, a carcinogen, with sources including agriculture and mining. When dangerous levels of soil contaminants are discovered, conventional remediation methods call for excavating and replacing soil. However, this is very expensive and wasteful. Researchers have discovered a technique to remediate arsenic contamination, called phytoremediation, which uses green plants to remove arsenic while leaving the soil in place. The brake fern (Pteris vittata L.) can take up arsenic from the soil through its roots and transport it to its fronds, where it is accumulated at very high concentrations. Harvesting the fronds removes arsenic from the soil over time. While this new method for decontaminating soil is promising, there is considerable work to do before this fern can be used in real-life situations. For example, the fern currently removes arsenic from soil very slowly.
Our goal is to investigate ways to make phytoremediation with the brake fern more effective and efficient. We investigated how intrinsic properties of soil, such as texture, and soil treatments, such as fertilization, affect the uptake of arsenic in the ferns. We combined results of field, greenhouse, and laboratory bench-top studies to understand processes at multiple scales. Our results show that soil texture and arsenic concentration affect arsenic uptake in the fern, with very high concentrations achieved in ferns growing in some but not all conditions present in our site. However, our best estimates of remediation times are on the order of decades. We are currently considering the role of arsenic availability in phytoremediation, to determine whether soils can be available for reuse once plant available arsenic is removed by the fern. This talk will introduce arsenic as a soil contaminant, consider emerging sustainable methods for remediating arsenic contamination, discuss our current results, and share our future work.
Small Scale Economies Project, Research Institute Human and Nature, RIHN
E-mail: takehara●chikyu.ac.jp / y.kobayashi●chikyu.ac.jp *Please change ● to @
tel 075-707-2240（Ms.Takehara）/ 2373（Ms. Kobayashi）
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(1) Feast around a Wood Stove
Workshop on Co-evolutionary Perspectives on the Anthropocene “Does everything change? Conceptualizing the persistence of human-environmental knowledge through time, objects, and landscapes” was coordinated by Dr. Daniel Niles, a member of Small-Scale Economies Project and Associate Professor at RIHN, and held on 23rd Feb, 2016. The participants included Prof. Sander Van Der Leeuw from Arizona State University, Dr. Benoit Hazard from Centre national de la recherche scientifique and Dr. Masahiro Terada from RIHN. How we are to approach Anthropocene and sustainability while maintaining “Whole Relationality” was the key question for the discussion, and the varied but insightful and transdisciplinary perspectives were presented and discussed by the participants.
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(1) Report of a General Meeting and the Mid-term Progress Report
Dr. Kazunobu Ikeya (National Museum of Ethnology）and Dr.Tomiko Yamaguchi (International Christian University) posted report on the Field Report.
Dr. Yamaoto, Prof. Kanno and Ms.Shinkai posted a report about the field research on Triquet Island.
Together with JSPS and the Center for Japanese Studies of UC Berkeley, our project held a successful international symposium on “Long-term Sustainability through Place-based, Small-scale Economies,” on September 26-28, 2014 at the University of California, Berkeley campus. A broad range of scholars, including archaeologists, ethnographers, biologists, economists and ecologists, participated.
The underlying theme of the papers and discussions dealt with issues of scale, resilience, and local knowledge. With growing populations, environmental change and the occurrence of human and natural catastrophes; understanding alternative food production systems is of paramount importance. Using case studies from prehistory to contemporary communities, a long-range continuum can be developed that explores small-scale adaptive strategies over extensive periods of time.
The symposium nicely demonstrated how small-scale systems with greater food diversity capabilities help maximize food security, while minimizing risk. While the regional emphasis was on Japan and western North America, papers also covered several additional areas of the world, including Africa, South America, East and Southeast Asia.