|FUNAMIZU Naoyuki||Muroran Institute of Technology|
|Researchers at RIHN|
|NAKAO Seiji||Specially Appointed Associate Professor|
|KIMURA Ayako||Research Associate|
|HONMA Saki||Research Associate|
|ITO Ryusei||Hokkaido University|
|USHIJIMA Ken||Hokkaido Research Organization|
|IKEMI Mayu||Sapporo International University|
|KATAOKA Yoshimi||Hokkaido University|
|SANO Daisuke||Tohoku University|
|NABESHIMA Takako||Hokkaido University|
|FUJIWARA Taku||Kochi University|
|HARADA Hidenori||Kyoto University|
|INOUE Takashi||Hokkaido University|
|SINTAWARDANI, Neni||Indonesian Institute of Science (LIPI), Indonesia|
|NYAMBE, Imasiku Anayawa||University of Zambia, Zambia|
|LOPEZ ZAVALA, Miguel Angel||Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Mexico|
Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and feces. UN Millennium Development Goals Report 2015 reported that 2.4 billion people are still using unimproved sanitation facilities, including 946 million people who are still practicing open defecation. The developing world still has high under-five mortality and poverty rates. The world’s population is estimated to reach approximately 10 billion in 2050, and this population growth will happen mostly in developing countries. At the same time, depopulation and aging are increasing, especially in the rural areas of the developed world, and the financial capability of many local governments—which are key agents in the management of sanitation systems—is getting weaker.
Sanitation systems are essential for promoting public health, preventing environmental pollution, conserving ecosystem functions, and recycling resources. The question of how to handle the waste of 10 billion people is therefore highly relevant to the global environment.
The project investigates the following hypotheses:
Hypothesis 1:Current sanitation problems are caused by a dissociation between the value which is provided by the sanitation system and the values of the individual people and/or the community of the people.
Hypothesis 2: Sanitation technologies cannot work well without a social and institutional support system. The mismatch between prerequisites of technologies and local characteristics additionally complicates sanitation issues.
The project proposes a new concept, the Sanitation Chain, which has the following dimensions:
1) Places the values of people and community in the center of discussion, and prepares the sanitation system to correspond to this value chain; 2) Designs the sanitation system by focusing on direct incentives for individual users and communities; 3) Recognizes a sanitation system as an integrated system with social and technical units; 4) Designs the sanitation system by making a good match between social characteristics and prerequisites of technologies.▲PAGE TOP
The goals of this research project are to: 1) Propose the concept of Sanitation Value Chain in relation to both developing and developed countries; 2) Design several pilot studies demonstrating the significance of societal, academic, and professional involvement in the co-creation of this value chain; and 3) Contribute to the establishment of a new interdisciplinary academic foundation on sanitation.
The project is performing field studies at four sites: 1) Rural areas in Ishikari River Basin, Hokkaido; 2) Rural areas of Burkina Faso; 3) Urban areas in Indonesia; and 4) Periurban areas in Zambia.
We involved multidisciplinary experts and have created a framework of understanding to capture sanitation problems as not only material cycling, but as a whole of the value of sanitation in health and wellbeing, materials, and socio-culture (Figure1). Based on the framework, we will uncover values embedded in societies and cultures, and co-create the Sanitation Value Chain by cooperating with various actors related to the sanitation system. We envisage that Sanitation Value Chain system will improve the health and wellbeing within the community.