А.N. Маkhinov
Institute of Water and Ecology Problems FEB RAS, Khabarovsk, Russia


The development of a water resource monitoring system is one of the priorities of the Russian government policy in the sphere of water resource use, regeneration and protection. At present the assessment of the state of water objects in the Russian Far East is implemented under the United State System for natural environment observations. Khabarovsky krai branches of the Russian Ministry of Nature, Hydrometeorological Service, Nature Inspection, Ministry of Education and Science and Ministry for Emergency Situations lead this work. The research institutes of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Far Eastern Agriculture Research Institute, Far Eastern Water Industry Company and other organizations contribute much to water resource monitoring as well. Water monitoring data, provided by big water consuming industrial companies, are also very important. Thus by now a stable system to monitor surface water objects has been created. It is implemented on the local, territorial, regional (Amur Basin) and federal levels.
The Amur River has a complicated hydrologic regime due to specifics of natural factors that infuence the river runoff formation. Many of these factors produce a negative effect on water quality in the Middle and Lower Amur. Thus the issues of water consumption safety in conditions of significant anthropogenic impact on water resources are very urgent.
The Russian-Chinese Coordinating Commission and the Expert Work Group were formed. They worked out the Plan for transboundary water objects such as the Amur, Ussuri, Argun, Razdolny rivers and the Lake Khanka. Regular water and bottom sediment sampling in 10 selected sites and water analysis of 40 water quality indicators were planed. These indicators allow estimating surface water pollution with industrial, agricultural and household wastes. This monitoring has been carried on since 2002.
Unique, rather detailed and exclusively reliable data were obtained during special emergency monitoring activities to mitigate Amur pollution after the accident at the chemical plant in Jilin in November 2005.
Still the existing monitoring system should not exclude scientific activities, including international, to assess the impact of water and bottom sediment pollution in the Amur, as well as s terrigenous, dissolved and biogenic matter discharged from the Amur on the Okhotsk Sea ecosystems.