Characteristics of Agricultural Development on Sanjiang Plain
- State Farm Paddy Field Development from a Macroscopic Perspective -

Hong PARK and Akihiko SAKASHITA
Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University


This paper is intended to elucidate from a macroscopic perspective the characteristics of the rapid development of irrigation and drainage systems and paddy fields on the Sanjiang Plain along the upper Amur River basin, which is one of the world’s three largest wetlands. Before setting out on this project, the authors have used the findings of their analysis of the paddy field development process at one state farm (Xinhua Farm) to take a microscopic approach to shed light on the development of paddy fields by farms and “zhigong” farmers (general farm laborers who became farmers (households)) and their roles in subsequent rice production. Because paddy field management on the Sanjiang Plain is very broad, but its rice producing techniques and economic structure have a certain definite form, the microscopic approach to understanding the paddy field development process and rice farming management structure on the level of farmers could be considered a success.
Based on such microscopic analysis, this paper assumes a macroscopic perspective to reveal the characteristics of the rapid development of irrigation and drainage systems and paddy fields on the Sanjiang Plain, based on a collection of materials and statistical data on paddy field development. In so doing, the authors put a focus on state farms, the existence of which characterized the extensive project to develop an irrigation and drainage system in the area. The entities involved in this project were stratified: on the first stratum was a national project for comprehensive land development; on the second stratum were the Bureau of Agricultural Reclamation, which manages state farms, and its Agricultural Reclamation Administration branch; and on the third stratum were zhigong farmers. The existence of these stratified entities was a condition made necessary by the nature of this project, i.e., development of a large wetland. Being at a point where three major rivers meet, the Sanjiang Plain is a flood plain, and so major infrastructure development was required, thereby necessitating this national project for flood control. The unique existence of the local government, which administers the political as well as economic vehicle of state farms, also contributed to the promotion of agricultural development. It was also the existence of zhigong farmers, who assumed the superiority of individuals and had the economic accumulation which brought this project to success that helped to stabilize rice production with an underground water irrigation system.



北海道大学大学院農学研究院 朴紅・坂下明彦

要 旨


  1. 朴・坂下[1]、[2]及び坂下・朴[3]を参照のこと。



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