|Project Researchers at RIHN|
|MASUHARA Naoki||Senior Project Researcher|
|OH Tomohiro||Project Researcher|
|OKAMOTO Takako||Project Research Associate|
|HONDA Hisami||Project Research Associate|
|TERAMOTO Shun||Project Research Associate|
|Main Project Members|
|FUJII Masahiko||Hokkaido University|
|SHOJI Jun||Hiroshima University|
|BABA Kenshi||Tokyo City University|
|OHSAWA Shinji||Kyoto University|
|TAHARA Daisuke||Fukui Prefectural University|
|KAWAMURA Tomohiko||The University of Tokyo|
|DELINOM, Robert M.||Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Indonesia|
|ALLEN, Diana M.||Simon Fraser University, Canada|
|SIRINGAN, Fernando P.||University of the Philippines Diliman, Philippines|
|GURDAK, Jason||San Francisco State University, USA|
Climate change and social change, including accelerating development, urbanization, and globalization are increasing pressure on water, energy and food resources, increasing the number of tradeoff s and potential conflicts among these resources that have their complex interactions. The Global Risks Interconnections Map published by the World Economic Forum in early 2016 highlights the global risk posed by linked food and water crises and energy price shocks. In order to address these issues, the objectives of the project are to understand the complexity of the water-energy-food (WEF) nexus system and to create policy options to reduce trade-offs among resources and to alleviate conflicts of resource users using scientific evidence and under assumptions of uncertainty to maximize human-environmental security. The project also contributes solutions to local and global environmental problems by contributing to global research networks associated with the Future Earth platform and the U.N. Sustainable Development Goals.
The project involves 60 researchers from different disciplines and five countries, including Indonesia, the Philippines, Canada, Japan and the USA. Five research groups carry out the following tasks: 1) the Water-Energy Nexus Group conducts biophysical measurement and analysis using space satellites, geothermic, and hydrogeological techniques; 2) the Water-Food Nexus Group conducts biophysical measurements and analyses using geochemical, coastal oceanographic, geophysical, hydrologic, and ecological methods, including isotopic tracers; 3) the Stakeholder Analysis Group conducts stakeholder and social network analyses, community surveys, and scenario planning based on sociology, economics, and behavioral science approaches; 4) the Socio-culture of Resource Usage Group develops the science-policy interface based on its examination of the socio-cultural history of groundwater use; and 5) the Interdisciplinary Group conducts the research with a mission to: i) identify research problems; and ii) determine the methods and/or create new discipline-free methods based on synthesizing and harmonizing team-based production, collected from individual scientists in different disciplines from each team in order to assess human environmental security. In addition, the team further developed these approaches to incorporate non-scientific/-disciplinary views on the analyses; and iii) design a nexus system.
In order to analyze the water-energy nexus we are collecting groundwater samples from observation wells by depth for monitoring the groundwater level in Otsuchi. We also calculated the potential of using groundwater as a source of thermal energy in Obama. In Beppu, the subsurface environment, including flow of groundwater and hot springs, have been clarified by gravity measurement.
The Water-Food Nexus Group identified the location of submarine groundwater discharge at Obama and Beppu bays, and estimated the supply of nutrients conveyed from land to ocean by groundwater. Stakeholder analysis of hot spring resources also clarified key issues related to future scenarios and social change.
The Interdisciplinary Group will continue to develop integrated methods, including models of Beppu and Otsuchi, Japan, Pajaro Valley, California, and British Columbia, Canada. This group is also designing a nexus system at the local scale to understand the complexity of the nexus system and establish a clear definition of the nexus concept.
For collaborative scientific activities with society, we designed lectures open to local citizens, also conducted a participatory survey on hot springs with local residences and stakeholders in Beppu. We developed a web page, spring map, in order to share the results of our groundwater survey. Such activities with local governments and private sector raised awareness of nexus issues.
Future research will improve scientific understanding of the complexity of the water-energy-food nexus, and attempt to ease social conflicts by promoting dialogue and cooperation with stakeholders. Finally, we will contribute to policy by suggesting ways to reduce trade-off s among the three nexus resources.