|FUNAMIZU Naoyuki||Muroran Institute of Technlogy|
|Researchers at RIHN|
|KIMURA Ayako||Research Associate|
|HONMA Saki||Research Associate|
|ITO Ryusei||Hokkaido University|
|USHIJIMA Ken||Hokkaido Research Organization|
|IKEMI Mayu||Sapporo International University|
|KATAOKA Yoshimi||Hokkaido University|
|SANO Daisuke||Tohoku University|
|NAKATANI Tomoaki||Yokohama City University|
|NABESHIMA Takako||Hokkaido University|
|FUJIWARA Taku||Kochi University|
|HARADA Hidenori||Kyoto University|
|INOUE Takashi||Hokkaido University|
|SINTAWADANI, Neni||Indonesian Institute of Science (LIPI), Indonesia|
|NYAMBE, Imasiku Anayaw||University of Zambia, Zambia|
|LOPEZ ZAVALA, Miguel Ange||Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Mexico|
Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and feces. UN Millennium Development Goals Report 2015 reported that 2.4 billion people are still using unimproved sanitation facilities, including 946 million people who are still practicing open defecation. The developing world still has high under-five mortality and poverty rates. The world’s population is estimated to reach approximately 10 billion in 2050, and this population growth will happen mostly in developing countries. At the same time, depopulation and aging are increasing, especially in rural area of developed world, and the financial capability of many local governments—which are key agents in the management of sanitation systems—is getting weaker.
Sanitation systems are essential for promoting public health, preventing environmental pollution, conserving ecosystem functions, and recycling resources. The question of how to handle the waste of 10 billion people is therefore highly relevant to the global environment.
The project investigates the following hypotheses:
Hypothesis 1: Current sanitation problems are caused by a dissociation between the value which is provided by the sanitation system and the values of the individual people and/or the community of the people.
Hypothesis 2: Sanitation technologies cannot work well without a social and institutional support system. The mismatch between prerequisites of technologies and local characteristics additionally complicates sanitation issues.
Figure 1 The Sanitation Value Chain acts within and between other important social values. Example for people in rural area of Burkina Faso (Figure by KATAOKA Yoshimi)
The project proposes a new concept, the Sanitation Value Chain, which has the following dimensions:
1) Places the values of people and community in the center of discussion, and prepares the sanitation system to correspond to this value chain; 2) Designs the sanitation system by focusing on direct incentives for individual users and communities; 3) Recognizes a sanitation system as an integrated system with social and technical units; 4) Designs the sanitation system by making a good match between social characteristics and prerequisites of technologies
The goals of this research project are to: 1) propose the concept of Sanitation Value Chain in relation to both developing and developed countries; 2) design several pilot studies demonstrating the significance of societal, academic, and professional involvement in the co-creation of this value chain; and 3) contribute to the establishment of a new interdisciplinary academic foundation regarding on sanitation.
The project is performing field studies at four sites: 1) the rural area in Ishikari River Basin, Hokkaido; 2) the rural area of Burkina Faso; 3) the urban area in Indonesia; and 4) the peri-urban area in Zambia.
Figure 2 The Sanitation Value Chain acts within and between other important social values. Example in urban area of Indonesia (Figure by USHIJIMA Ken)
Figure 3 E. coli exposure pathways. Example of measurement in Bangladesh, From: Harada et al. (2017) Fecal exposure analysis and E. coli pathotyping: a case study of a Bangladeshi slum, International Symposium on Green Technology for Value Chains 23-24 October, 2017, Balai Kartini, Jakarta.
Photo 1 Meeting with people in Bandung City, Indonesia (Photo by IKEMI Mayu)
Photo 2 Activities of a children’s club formed in Lusaka City, Zambia (Photo by Sikopo P. NYAMBE)
Figure 4 International academic Journal
“Sanitation Value Chain”