Program NameResearch Program3: Fair Use and Management of Diverse Resources
Program DirectorNAKASHIZUKA Tohru

○Research Subject and Objectives

Program Goal
Taking tradeoffs into account, this program provides multifaceted options to stakeholders involved in production, distribution, and consumption of resources, in order to realize fair use, optimal management, and wise governance of diverse resources including energy, water and ecological resources.

Mission

As has been pointed out in recent years by initiatives such as Future Earth, since global environmental problems are interlinked, it is not effective to attempt to solve isolated issues and co-design and co-production of results together with a range of stakeholders is essential. Recently, the nexus structure among energy, water and food has been emphasized as a resource issue, but in order to build a highly sustainable society, we need to safeguard humanity’s base for survival through more comprehensive understandings that take into account not only these resources, but also ecological resources including ecosystem services and cultural resources. In particular, the comprehensive management of diverse resources, taking into consideration cultural resources that are related to high quality of life and spiritual abundance, has become important.
Resources are produced, circulated and consumed at different spatial scales by diverse stakeholders and throughout these processes there is a need for arrangements for fair use and management and methods for their evaluation. Also when considered as economic activities, the use of renewable natural resources is the key to the realization of a sustainable society and a transition of values and action from conventional thinking centered upon manufacturing capital towards an understanding of prosperity that includes hitherto externalized natural, human and social capital is needed. On the other hand, although in Asia large changes are occurring against the background of rapid economic growth, population increase and urbanization, also remaining are highly sustainable traditions of resource use that are culturally connected with the abundant subsistence base and that provide important suggestions for the future image of resource use.

While such case studies have been accumulated at RIHN thus far, there remain areas that are under-researched (for example resources such as energy, or enterprises as global stakeholders). In this program, we aim to explore resource use across multiple resources and spatial scales and with diverse stakeholders by developing new projects to address such areas while at the same time incorporating novel ideas from young scientists. Further, we will explore the conditions necessary for a transition of values and transformation of human behavior and propose policies and socio-economic institutions for the realization of fair resource management as well as criteria for their evaluation.

○Progress and Results in 2017

Program 2 includes the following 3 projects (1 finished and 2 ongoing projects) up to now.

1)    Creation of sustainable governance of new commons through formation of integrated local knowledge, lead by Dr. Tetsu Sato (- Mar 2017).

This project aimed to integrate local environmental knowledge. They developed a conceptual model of knowledge-based adaptive social transformation. One of important results is about the contribution of knowledge translators for community transformation by meta-analyses of RIHN Projects. Here, they found that the existence of balanced translators is most effective, while top-down translators are not effective. These results are very suggestive to consider the institutions for resource management.

2)    Human-environmental security in Asia-Pacific ring of fire: Water-Energy-Food Nexus, lead by D. Aiko Endo (- Mar 2018).

This project aimed to sustainable management of Water-Energy-Food nexus, which is one of the key issues of Program 2. They achieved a lot to meet the two primary objectives; A) to understand the complexity of the WEF nexus system, and B) to create policy options to solve the identified nexus problems under scientific evidence and uncertainty. They developed a method to analyze multiple resources among local stake holders the end of this this fiscal year.

3)    Biodiversity-driven Nutrient Cycling and Human Well-being in Social-Ecological Systems, lead by Dr. Noboru Okuda (-Mar 2020).

The third project deals with biodiversity and nutrient cycling for well-being in watershed level. They aim to establish a method of multi-level governance for sustainable watershed system, which also include the management issues of multiple resources. In particular, they think local biodiversity could be a driving force to manage water quality and nutrient cycling, and at the same time, human well-being. They also want to refer the poverty and wealth disparity by comparing the two watersheds, one in developed (Japan) and another in developing countries (Philippines). After 2 year of Full Research period, they elucidated the linkage between irrigation of paddy fields, biodiversity, and nutrient cycling. They have started the comparative researches in Laguna Lake, Philippines.

Dr. Sato’s project contributed to develop the meta-analysing methods on governance among multi-stakeholders, while Dr. Endo’s project developed analytical methods on practical management system in local scale. Dr. Okuda’s project is providing another example of multi-resource management (water, nutrient and ecological resources), which is rather different from Dr. Endo’s project. Since these projects are the studies mostly on local scale, we tried to make discussion on resource dynamics and stakeholders mostly in regional or local scales, including private sectors. Now we are inviting other projects to apply along the context of Program 2.

Other than these outputs from projects above, we made discussions among scientists on the concept of ‘fair use’of resources, which is one of the critical points of last EREC. We reviewed international literatures on ‘equity’, which is one of the key concepts relating to fairness. We are now preparing the method to describe the inter-linkages among multi-resources and multi-stakeholders (see sections below).

We identified the following challenging points.

1)    What kind of conceptual framework on ‘fairness’ is necessary?

We are now discussing to propose the framework on ‘fair use’ of resources considering from 3 aspects; efficiency, sustainability and equity. At moment, we think efficiency could be evaluated by physical amount of wastes, economic costs sometimes including index such as Inclusive Wealth, when we consider ecological resources. Sustainability may be evaluated by some indices such as ecological footprint, environmental impacts, or self-sustainability within a area. Equity is most difficult part to evaluate, though we should propose some indices which could be evaluate from the aspects of economy, quality of life, happiness, well being and so on. Further discussions are needed to develop this idea.

2)    How we can develop the method to describe and analyze the inter-linkage among multi- resources and multi-stakeholders?

We repeated the discussions among researchers, and have started to develop a method to describe and analyze the inter-linkages of multiple-resources by multi-stakeholders in various areas which have been studied by RIHN Project. At moment, the method to describe the synergy and tradeoff among resources and stakeholders in complexed matrices. We want to develop the ideas applying the method to some model areas of RIHN Project in the next fiscal year.

3)    How we could enlarge the scale of scope and studies into global?

We hosted seminars inviting speakers including stakeholders and researchers of private sectors. Through the discussion, we the possibility of new research proposal to study global supply chain and environmental impacts. We would like to continue encouraging the proposal in this direction in coming fiscal year.

Synergy Effects

The ongoing projects are directing different aspects which included in the scope of Program 2. Dr. Sato’s project (already finished) contributed to develop the meta-analysing methods on governance among multi- stakeholders, while Dr. Endo’s project developed analytical methods on practical management system in local scale. Dr. Okuda’s project is providing another example of multi-resource management (water, nutrient and ecological resources), which is rather different from Dr. Endo’s project. Thus, integration of the results of these projects would make progress of Program 2 as a whole, though still the integrating roadmap is not very clear.

Considering this situation, we made a discussion to propose the evaluation system on ‘fair use’of multi- resources by multi-stakeholders. We are developing a method to describe the situation of local resource use. We would like to this method to the areas of their study sites to detect the possibility of universal application. We would also like to invite new proposal of Incubation Research, providing necessary information for the candidate of researchers.

○Project Members

○Future Themes

We invited research proposals which meet the concept of Program 2. In particular, I welcome the project to study the use of multi-resources by multi-stakeholders in global scale. In this sense we want to host some seminars to discuss this issue, including international enterprise, as one of the important international stake holders. Also, we would like to encourage the development of the proposed RIHN Feasible Studies to be admitted as Full Research, including a study on global supply chain and Benefit sharing of genetic resources.

Books

【Chapters/Sections】

Tohru Nakashizuka, Masaya Shimazaki, Takehiro Sasaki, Takahisa Tanaka, Hiroko Kurokawa, and Houki Hikosaka 2016,04 Influences of Climate Change on the Distribution and Population Dynamics of Subalpine Coniferous Forest in the Hakkoda Mountains, Northern Japan. Structure and Function of Mountain Ecosystems in Japan(Springer). , pp.1-15.

Editing

【Editing / Co-editing】

Jotaro Urabe • Tohru Nakashizuka (Eds) (ed.) 2016,11 Ecological Impacts of Tsunamis on Coastal Ecosystems- Lessons from the Great East Japan Earthquake. ,

Shin-ichi Nakano・Tetsukazu Tahara・Tohru Nakashizuka (ed.) 2016,06 Aquatic Biodiversity Conservation and Ecosystem Services. Asia-Pacific Biodiversity Obseervation Network. Springer,

Papers

【Original Articles】

Ohsawa, T., Okano, T., Nakao, F., Kabaya, K., Kofuku, S., Kikuchi, K. & Nakashizuka, T 2018,01 Underuse/overuse and diversity of provisioning services and their change: the case of the Japanese national ecosystem service assessment (JBO2). Sustainability Science:1-13. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11625-018-0531-z

Takeuchi, Y., Soda, R., Diway, B., Tinjan ak. Kuda, Nakagawa, M., Nagamasu, H. & Nakashizuka, T. 2017,10 Biodiversity conservation values of fragmented communally reserved forests, managed by indigenous people, in a human-modified landscape in Borneo. PLOS ONE.

Jacob Usinowicz, Chia-hao Chang-Yang, Yu-Yun Chen, James S. Clark, Christine Fletcher, nancy C. Garwood, Zhanqing hao, Jill Johnstone, Yiching Lin, Margaret R. Metz, takashi Masaki, tohru nakashizuka, I-Fang Sun, Renato Valencia, Yunyun Wang, Jess K. Zimmerman, Anthony R. Ives& S. Joseph Wright1 2017,09 Temporal coexistence mechanisms contribute to the latitudinal gradient in forest diversity. Nature 24038:105-108. DOI:10.1038

Takano, K.T., Hibino, K., Numata, A., Oguro, M., Aiba, M., Shiogama, H., Takayabu, I. & Nakashizuka, T. 2017,09 Detecting latitudinal and altitudinal expansion of invasive bamboo Phyllostachys edulis and P. bambusoides (Poaceae) in Japan to project potential habitats under 1.5°C–4.0°C global warming. Ecology and Evolution(ece3.3471). DOI:10.1002

Miki U. Ueda, Panida Kachina, Dokrak Marod, Tohru Nakashizukaa, Hiroko Kurokawa 2017,08 Soil properties and gross nitrogen dynamics in old growth and secondary forest in four types of tropical forest in Thailand. Forest Ecology and Management(398):130-139.

Imamura, K., Nakashizuka, T. Managi, S. 2017,08 Abandoned Forest Ecosystem: Implications for Japan’s Oak Wilt Disease.. Journal of Forest Economics(29):56-61.

Kachina, P., Kurokawa, H., Oguro, M., Nakashizuka, T., Tanaka,H., Thinkampheang, S., Sangkaew, S. Panuthai、S. and Marod、D. 2017,08 Effect of Forest fire on the regeneration of a bamboo species (Cephalostachyum pergracile Munro) at a mixed deciduous forest in Mae Klong Watershed Research Station, Thailand. Tropics:37-48.

Suzuki-Ohno, Y., Yokoyama, J., Nakashizuka, T. & Kawata, M 2017,07 Utilization of photographs taken by citizens for estimating bumblebee distributions. Scientific Reports.

Yuta Inoue, Tomoaki Ichie, Tanaka Kenzo, Aogu Yoneyama, Tomo’omi Kumagai & Tohru Nakashizuka 2017,05 Effects of rainfall exclusion on leaf gas exchange traits and osmotic adjustment in mature canopy trees of Dryobalanops aromatica (Dipterocarpaceae) in a Malaysian tropical rain forest. Tree Physiology:1301-1311.

Yuanzhi Li, Bill Shipley, Jodi N. Price, Vinícius de L. Dantas, Riin Tamme, Mark Westoby, Andrew Siefert, Brandon S. Schamp, Marko J. Spasojevic, Vincent Jung, Daniel C. Laughlin, Sarah J. Richardson, Yoann Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Christian Schöb, Antonio Gazol, Honor C. Prentice, Nicolas Gross, Jake Overton, Marcus V. Cianciaruso, Frédérique Louault, Chiho Kamiyama, Tohru Nakashizuka, Kouki Hikosaka, Takehiro Sasaki, Masatoshi Katabuchi, Cédric Frenette Dussault, Stephanie Gaucherand, Ning Chen, Marie Vandewalle, Marco Antônio Batalha 2017,05 Habitat filtering determines the functional niche occupancy of plant communities worldwide. Journal of Ecology.

Haruka Imai, Tohru Nakashizuka and Michio Oguro 2017,03 Environmental factors affecting the composition and diversity of the avian community in igune, a traditional agricultural landscape in northern Japan. Journal of Ecology and Environment in press.

Takano Kohei, Nagano-ken, Hibino Kenshi, Numata Ayaka, Aiba Masahiro, Shiogama Hideo, Takayabu Izuru, Nakashizuka Tohru, 2017,02 Detecting latitudinal and altitudinal expansion of invasive bamboo Phyllostachys edulis and P. bambusoides (Poaceae) in Japan to project potential habitats under 1.5°C–4.0°C global warming . Ecology and Evolution 2017-02-00163.R1.

Shoko Sakai a, Choy Yee Keong, Keiko Kishimoto-Yamada, Kohei T. Takano, Masahiro Ichikawa,Hiromitsu Samejima, Yumi Kato, h, Ryoji Soda, Masayuki Ushio, Izuru Saizen, Tohru Nakashizuka,Takao Itioka 2016,12 Social and ecological factors associated with the use of non-timber forest products by people in rural Borneo.. Biological Conservation 204:340-349.

Nakashizuka, Tohru 2016,06 What we have studied and what should be studied in the future on tropical rain forests in Sarawak. Proceedings of the symposium "Frontier in tropical forest research: progress in joint projects between the Forest Department Sarawak and the Japan Research Consortium for Tropical Forests in Sarawak" (2016), 2016: 1-8.  8

Inoue, Yuta; Ichie, Tomoaki; Tanaka, Kenzo; Yoneyama, Aogu; Kumagai, Tomoomi; Nakashizuka, Tohru 2016,06 <S1-11> Effect of through-fall exclusion on leaf water use in the tropical canopy tree species Dryobalanops aromatica/Session 1: Ecology and genetics of tropical rainforest trees in Sarawak. Proceedings of the symposium "Frontier in tropical forest research: progress in joint projects between the Forest Department Sarawak and the Japan Research Consortium for Tropical Forests in Sarawak".

Masahiro Aiba, Hiroko Kurokawa, Yusuke Onoda, Michio Oguro, Tohru Nakashizuka & Takashi Masaki 2016,05 Context-dependent changes in the functional composition of tree communities along successional gradients after land-use change. Journal of Ecology 104:1347-1356. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.12597

Kohei Imamura, Kohei Takenaka, Takano, Nobuhito Mori, Tohru Nakashizuka & Shunsuke Managi 2016,02 Attitudes toward disaster-prevention risk in Japanese coastal areas: analysis of civil preference. Natural Hazards 82:209-226.

Rei Shibata1, Hiroko Kurokawa, Mitsue Shibata, Hiroshi Tanaka, Shigeo Iida, Takashi Masaki and Tohru Nakashizuka 2016,01 Relationships between resprouting ability, species traits and resource allocation patterns in woody species in a temperate forest. Functional Ecology 30:1205-1215.

Research Presentations

【Oral Presentation】

Tohru Nakashizuka Assessing ecosystem service in Asian region by using biodiversity observation date. GEOSS Asia-Pacific Symposium, 2017.09.18-2017.09.20, Hanoi Vietnam.

Nakashizuka, Tohru What we have studied and what should be studied in the future on tropical rain forests in Sarawak. symposium "Frontier in tropical forest research: progress in joint projects between the Forest Department Sarawak and the Japan Research Consortium for Tropical Forests in Sarawak", June 2016, Sarawak, Malaysia. Forest Department Sarawak (FDS); Japan Research Consortium for Tropical Forests in Sarawak (JRCTS)

Tohru Nakashizuka Recent Dynamics and Future Prediction of Mountain Vegetation in Northern Japan. The 7th International Conference on Water Resources and Encironment Research (ICWRER2016), 2016.05.05-2016.05.09, Kyoto.

Tohru Nakashizuka Impacts and risks of climate change on biodiversity and ecosystem. 7th Japan-EU Workshop on Climate Change Research, 2016.04.26-2016.04.27, Tokyo.

Inoue, Yuta; Ichie, Tomoaki; Tanaka, Kenzo; Yoneyama, Aogu; Kumagai, Tomoomi; Nakashizuka, Tohru <S1-11> Effect of through-fall exclusion on leaf water use in the tropical canopy tree species Dryobalanops aromatica/Session 1: Ecology and genetics of tropical rainforest trees in Sarawak. symposium "Frontier in tropical forest research: progress in joint projects between the Forest Department Sarawak and the Japan Research Consortium for Tropical Forests in Sarawak", , Sarawak, Malaysia. Forest Department Sarawak (FDS); Japan Research Consortium for Tropical Forests in Sarawak (JRCTS)

【Poster Presentation】

Shoko Sakai, Choy Yee Keong, Keiko Kishimoto-Yamada, Kohei Takano, Masahiro Ichikawa, Hiromitsu Samejima, Yumi Kato, Ryoji Soda, Masayuki Ushio, Izuru Saizen, Tohru Nakashizuka, Takao Itioka Urbanization, population change and forest cover in rural Borneo. The 65th Annual Meeting of the Ecological Society of Japan, 2017.03.14-2017.03.18, Tokyo.

【Invited Lecture / Honorary Lecture / Panelist】

Tohru Nakashizuka, Reiichiro Ishii WG2: AISA-PACIFIC BIODIVERSITY OBSERVATION NETWORK(AP-BON): Session1 Moderators: Overview of regional and national BON activities. AGENDA The Ninth GEOSS Asia-Pacific Symposium: "Earth Observation Supporting the Implementation of the SDGs in the Asia Pacific Region", 2017.01.11-2017.01.13, Tokyo.

Tohru Nakashizuka WG2: AISA-PACIFIC BIODIVERSITY OBSERVATION NETWORK(AP-BON): Discussion towards broader engagement of observation and user communities: 2)Data-Knowledge-Information chain: Japan Biodiversity Outlook 2. AGENDA The Ninth GEOSS Asia-Pacific Symposium: "Earth Observation Supporting the Implementation of the SDGs in the Asia Pacific Region", 2017.01.11-2017.01.13, Tokyo.

Tohru Nakashizuka Interactive Dialogue on Living in Harmony with Nature. The thirteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity(COP13), 2016.12.12, Cancún, México.

Tohru Nakashizuka Modelling terresitial natural capital and ecosystem services in Japan. Seminar: Ecosystem Scenarios and Models From Local to National Scales -Contributions to IPBES Regional and Global Asswssments-, 2016.11.14, Tokyo.

Tohru Nakashizuka, Reiichiro Ishii WG2: AISA-PACIFIC BIODIVERSITY OBSERVATION NETWORK(AP-BON): Session1 Moderators: Overview of regional and national BON activities. AGENDA The Ninth GEOSS Asia-Pacific Symposium: "Earth Observation Supporting the Implementation of the SDGs in the Asia Pacific Region", 2016.11.11-2016.11.13, Tokyo.

Tohru Nakashizuka WG2: AISA-PACIFIC BIODIVERSITY OBSERVATION NETWORK(AP-BON): Discussion towards broader engagement of observation and user communities: 2)Data-Knowledge-Information chain: Japan Biodiversity Outlook 2. AGENDA The Ninth GEOSS Asia-Pacific Symposium: "Earth Observation Supporting the Implementation of the SDGs in the Asia Pacific Region", 2016.11.11-2016.11.13, Tokyo.

Tohru Nakashizuka Effects of climate change on mountain forest. Sino-Japan forum on frontiers in forest ecology, 2016.09.29, Nanníng, China.